genealogy' is the use of DNA testing in association with surnames.
This usually involves the use of the paternally-inherited Y-chromosome
that all males possess as this is often the same path that surnames
Certain genetic markers in 'junk DNA' are analyzed to provide
a result; string of numbers called a 'haplotype'. This haplotype
isn't medically informative or personally identifiable, but
it is possible to compare a person's haplotype with another
person to determine if they are related.
Comparisons are best made with people who share the same or
similar surname; you will share your haplotype with others who
are not related to you and so by using the surname too, this
significantly raises the probabilities that the two people are
genetically related when a match is found.
Testing companies send out swab kits to participants by post.
The Q-tip like swabs are gently rubbed on the inside of the
cheeks to collect a few buccal cells (which line inside of the
These swabs are then sent for analysis where the DNA is extracted,
purified and the genetic markers under analysis are amplified
(which produces many copies of these small genetic markers).
The product is then fed through a genetic analyzer which separates
the markers out by size.
The size of each marker provides the basis for the results produced.
These results (the haplotype) can then be compared with others
with the same or similar surname.
To get an in-depth explanation,
click here (opens in a new window).
If I take a DNA test, will the results identify
the name of my ancestor(s)?
Your results will establish
your haplotype, then your results can be compared with other
people's results who are in the same haplogroup. Further
analysis by sharing ancestral information can then be analyzed
to identify common ancestors.....
Then why should I take a DNA test?
First, and most importantly, before you
decide to take the test, be sure that you are prepared psychologically!
No kidding! Only serious genealogy researchers and people
who want to know "for sure" should participate. One never
knows for sure what might be hiding in a Family Tree until
they start doing genealogy research. So, having cleared
that up, why should someone take a DNA test?
Because there are others who have been
tested and their DNA markers might match your results. If
so, then, working with others, you can identify common ancestors.
We keep a cross-reference database (by kit#, NOT by your
name) that shows the DNA marker matches and we show the
ancestor's name that you and others provide us. YES, you
can contact them and share genealogy information.
How do I get started?
First, you should decide which type of
DNA test to take.
There are 2 types of test - Y-chromosome
for men and mitochondrial mtDNA for females. In addition,
there are more complex tests that provide much more information.
If you have watched some of the detective
shows on TV, you have heard these DNA terms. Right?
If I take a DNA test, what happens to the
test results and who will have access to the results?
OK, let's stop here! We at The Genealogy
Tree would like for you and your family to participate in
this project and benefit from this highly effective genealogy
The FIRST STEP is to take the DNA test.
You will be taking either the Y-chromosome (males) or the
mitochondrial mtDNA (females). In either case, when you
get your results, please contact us and let's get your results
integrated with other Howard researchers.
HAVE YOU TAKEN THE TEST???? If not, click
on the picture below.